• CollegeLCF
  • Start dateSeptember 2018
  • Course length3 years
  • UCAS code9L13

BA (Hons) Fashion Styling and Production

Applications closed 2018/19
Applications for 2018/19 entry to this course have now closed. Visit the Clearing page for a full list of UAL courses that are open for application.

Learn the professional skills to become an innovative stylist in the creative world of fashion image-making, on this undergraduate styling course.

About this course

BA (Hons) Fashion Styling and Production is situated in the School of Media and Communication, and prepares you for a career as a fashion stylist where increasingly you need to be aware of developments, such as new technologies and platforms, within the industry you want to enter on graduation. The course will therefore facilitate your understanding and knowledge of production as well as styling, which will give you another set of relevant skills.

Fashion Spaces - a showcase of undergraduate work from the fashion media courses at LCF, took place at House of Vans in London in early 2017.

Students preparing their final work for LCFBA17.

Boy in mask by roadside
Will Nicholson photographed by Dylan Myers and styled by Atreyu Rodriguez, (Year 1 FSP student) in exclusive for Fucking Young! Online.

Will Nicholson photographed by Dylan Myers and styled by Atreyu Rodriguez, (Year 1 FSP student) in exclusive for Fucking Young! Online.

Male model with paint and thread on him.

Styling and production by Christopher Powell,phtography by Holly Rutter, hair and make up by Evie Blythe. Model- Ruari Horan.

Model dressed in tiara.
Styling by Georgia Masters, photography by Natalie Baxter, hair and make-up by Emily Waeger. Model- Kaia Moore.

Styling by Georgia Masters, photography by Natalie Baxter, hair and make-up by Emily Waeger. Model- Kaia Moore.

Styling by Jekaterina Mirmanova. Photography by Mal Willes. Make-up and Hair by Seunghee Yoo. Models- Alina Khaohatrian and Zoe Bal.
Models with books

Styling by Jekaterina Mirmanova, photography by Mal Willes, make-up and Hair by Seunghee Yoo. Models - Alina Khaohatrian and Zoe Bal.

Model in tree; model in clothes

Styling by Filomena Ianniciello and Surhee Pom; photography by Ryan James Croxton; hair and make-up by Seunghee Yoo.

Xinyu Wu

Styling by Xinyu Wu; photography by Katja Mayer.


  • LCF Library

    Take a tour of LCF's world renowned fashion library, ideal for research and study.

  • Media facilities at Lime Grove

    Take a tour of Lime Grove's media facilities from photographic studios to darkrooms.

  • LCF's social spaces

    Explore our social spaces, for collaborative study and breaks, across our six sites in London.

Course detail

This course is subject to revalidation. Revalidation is a process that makes sure students get a high quality academic experience. During revalidation there may be some changes to course content. Please contact us if you have any questions about this course.

All the fashion media and communication courses are based in Lime Grove, which means that every student can benefit from the skills of students on complementary courses. The importance of teamwork will be explored through collaborative projects that you will undertake, and you also work independently to develop your skills and personal style in preparation for the industry. You will acquire the practical skills of styling and production, together with broader academic studies which give you a contemporary and historical understanding of your creative discipline within the wider perspectives of fashion, society and the environment. This will integrate the practical and theoretical aspects of your learning. You will also learn research skills, both visual and academic, which will underpin your creative practice and develop your analytical skills and critical awareness, in readiness for the two major assignments that you will undertake in your final year. Contact with the industry throughout the course increases your opportunities for employment after graduation, as does the opportunity to attend workshops to hone your skills in preparing for employment.

Course structure

Year one  -  stage one  -  level 4  -  120 credits 

Term one: Introduction to Fashion Styling and Production(20 credits); Key Concepts in Styling (20 credits)

Term two: Introduction to Cultural and Historical Studies (20 credits); Key Concepts in Production (20 credits)

Term three: Collaborative Practice: Fashion Spreads (40 credits)


Year two  -  stage two  -  level 5  -  120 credits

Term one: Cultural and Historical Studies (20 credits); Mediating Fashion (20 credits)

Term two: Situating Your Practice: Placement/Situating Your Practice: International Study Media/Situating Your Practice: Fashioned Spaces (40 credits)

Term three: Research Methods for Fashion Styling and Production (20 credits); Style, Genre, Signature (20 credits)


Year three  -  stage three  -  level 6  -  120 credits

Term one: Collaborative Experimental Practice unit (20 credits)

Term one and term two: Cultural and Historical Studies Dissertation (40 credits)

Term Two and Term Three: Final Major Project (60 credits)

Students on this course might be invited to participate in study trips. This may involve, for example, visits to key areas of capital cities, factories, stores and museums. Attendance on these trips is not compulsory but recommended. Details regarding timings and costs will be issued closer to the relevant trips.

Course units

Year one

In the first term you will study two units.

Introduction to Fashion Styling and Production gives you an understanding of your personal and professional development at university, with three core purposes: to introduce you to the necessary learning skills for undergraduate study; to show you where you are situated within the College and the University; and to help you understand what you will learn on your course and how you will develop your skills.

Key Concepts in Styling introduces you to the disciplines of styling. You will learn about fashion image construction, garment and prop sourcing, re-modification, recycling and customisation, which will inform your exploration of themes, narratives and ideas. Contextual explorations of art direction and sequencing will be investigated, including the use of the use of a variety of props and products. You will investigate the codes and conventions of dressing and situating the body within a fashion context, and explore the way in which the body is utilised to convey meaning.

Introduction to Cultural and Historical Studies introduces you to key concepts and ways of thinking about fashion and its context in society and culture. You will attend lectures, seminars and workshops, and do a significant amount of reading of academic texts in order to complete a formal academic essay for assessment.  Completion of this unit will allow you to make an informed choice of subject for study in the second year Cultural and Historical Studies unit.

Key Concepts in Production gives you an understanding of the language, processes and practices of fashion production. The unit will ‘unpack’ the processes and modes of production used with you acting as a fashion practitioner in fashion related industries. You will learn that production is understood and facilitated through the language of fashion, conceptual application, context, site, audience, and multi-platform locations. You will gain an understanding of the stages of production and product placement, which will assist you in facilitating production knowledge and skills. Focus is placed upon traditional and abstract ideas of production including, fashion production systems, capturing, rendering, static media, time-based media, technological communication, including multimedia formats in the presentation of narrative construction. The application and sequencing of your ideas will be informed through an understanding of the broad range of platforms available to you.

In the third term you will do the Collaborative Practice: Fashion Spreads unit, where you will work together with others as part of a team on an assignment that reflects the professional practice of fashion image-making. You will focus on research and production strategies, as well as on 2D and 3D thinking and realisation. Fashion ideation requires strategic and inventive experimentation to test expression and foster critical thinking. You will produce conceptual and creative outcomes for a selected site, location and audience, and through this will increase both your knowledge and your practical skills. In producing conceptual and creative outcomes for a selected site, location, and audience, you will gain insightful knowledge and practical skills. This simulation will introduce you to professional collaborative practice.

Year two

In the first term you will be able to study a Cultural and Historical Studies unit of your choice that will broaden or deepen your learning of areas relating to your interests in your chosen field. You will have the opportunity to participate in lectures, seminars and workshops with students from other courses within your School, and will read relevant academic texts and complete a formal academic essay for assessment.

Also studied in the first term is the Mediating Fashion unit. You will investigate how ideas and concepts can be communicated creatively and effectively through multiple formats and you will explore current practice in this field. You will learn how fashion image production has shifted as a result of technological developments in contemporary culture, and you will look at the mediation of fashion through a film format. Your final outcome will present content so that meaning and product are understood for print, screen and the environment. In addition, you will develop the technical skills to enable you to adopt an experimental approach to your work including pre and post-production techniques, underpinned with contemporary relevance for a selected location/platform.

Second term options:

Situating Your Practice: Placement aims to develop your professional skills within an industry environment. On your placement you will be able to experience the pace, atmosphere and discipline of working in the industry. This will give you practical experience of the roles, functions and operations within the industry. The unit requires a minimum of 60 work placement hours.


Situating Your Practice: International Study Media provides an opportunity to apply previous learning whilst studying your subject in a different institution. You will develop skills within your practice and gain credits for your current course whilst engaging with the academic culture of your host institution. The unit also demands a critical approach to the management of your own learning through reflection and planning.

Please note: we are unable to guarantee that every course will have an agreement with a partner host institution. As such, this unit is subject to availability. There will be a selection and application process for students who are interested in applying to take this unit of study.


Situating Your Practice: Fashioned Spaces will introduce you to the processes, platforms and formats which are available for you to use in order to showcase your specialist creative practice. The unit will offer you the opportunity to situate, curate, produce and display your innovative body of work within a site-specific context and devise and promote its exposure to a real-life audience. During the course of the unit you will be able to experience your discipline as a public event, which will give you hands-on experience of the roles, functions and operations within the context of professional fashion community.

In the third term you do the Research Methods for Fashion Styling and Production unit, which provides the bedrock for both your dissertation proposal for Cultural and Historical Studies and your Final Major Project. For your dissertation you will look at two key stages in the production of the dissertation, the literature review and research, and at their relationship to each other. You will also consider the relationship between primary and secondary sources, ways of developing and originating research, and ways of realising the research appropriate to Cultural and Historical Studies. You will also investigate the methods of research appropriate to your core practice as a visual practitioner in the field of fashion styling and production. You will demonstrate a systematic understanding and knowledge of research methods and concepts in your field, allowing you to devise and sustain arguments and / or solve problems. You will engage with ideas, techniques, and practice to describe and visually comment upon particular aspects of current research appropriate for fashion styling production.

Also in the third term you will do the Style, Genre, Signature unit, which will introduce you to the importance of developing your recognisable personal style for your subject specialism. You will be introduced to key practitioners in the field who have shaped and employed both personal style and aligned it to their practice in their own unique way. The importance of the way in which unique and authentic visions are developed will be emphasised. Consideration of the themes visible in key areas of your practice for future experimentation will assist you in your preparation for industry. You will be expected to reflect on your work to date and make decisions on how you will progress in preparation for your professional practice. Doing this now will benefit you for your final year of study.

Year three

Collaboration and experimentation are essential aspects of the creative process especially with regards to the fashion image industry. Collaborative Experimental Practice unit will offer you an opportunity to explore and expand the parameters of your work by engaging in collaborations that facilitate experimentation, creative thinking, practical testing and reflective problem solving, all in the context of an industry related brief. Creative outcomes and focused experimentation derived from this unit could inform the process that you explore and expand upon in your Final Major Project next term.

In the first and second terms you will undertake a major piece of written work for the Cultural and Historical Studies Dissertation unit. This allows you to demonstrate your understanding of the critical and analytical perspectives developed within cultural and historical theory, and how you can apply these theoretical perspectives in a specific study, which you will have already identified in the third term of the second year. The dissertation gives you the opportunity to undertake primary and secondary research that examines in depth cultural issues relating to a particular aspect of fashion, lifestyle, the body, performance or the media, and to produce a written piece of work that reflects the critical debates around your chosen topic.

The Final Major Project, undertaken in the second and third terms, gives you the opportunity to produce an extended body of practical work at an advanced conceptual, technical and aesthetic level. This will be a development from the range of cultural and practical work that you have undertaken so far on the course. The outcome will be directed towards a specific and clearly identified audience.

Showing your work

All students are advised to set up a profile on portfolio.arts.ac.uk, UAL’s new portfolio platform, which can be done at any point during your time at LCF and will last for up to 12 months after graduation. This platform is often used to source student work for promotional use on the website, social media and for print and can be a great way of getting your work seen. You may also be asked to have a portfolio profile for the selection process when it comes to degree shows.


Clare Buckley is Course Leader BA (Hons) Fashion Styling and Production and an established fashion stylist and creative director and has worked with the language of clothes, objects and materials within the fashion industry for over ten years as a fashion editor and stylist for publications including Russh, Wallpaper* and the Guardian: Weekend magazine In both womenswear and menswear, alongside advertising, music, celebrity and film work. Her interest focuses on curated aesthetic and a colour-based enquiry with an investigation into styling language against multi disciplinary platforms and productions. Her work encourages the sensorial and emotionality of fashion and styling language and the spirit conveyed behind all visual productions and stories against a wider fashion landscape. In collaborative mode her works leads projects for students, staff and Industry as part of a programme of public speaking, workshops and festivals such as EIFF Festival 2016, 2014, Vogue Ukraine Fashion 2016 Business Art & Design Conference and 2014 Linder & Tate St Ives Hepworth & The Arts Ball, alongside collaborating Internationally within styling, art directing and producing fashion editorials. She has styled celebrity clients such as Paloma Faith, Siouxie Sioux, Julie Delphy, David tenant, Sophie Hunt, and Sophie Ellis Bextor. She has over 8 years experience within creative arts higher arts within styling & production. Clare Buckley is the co-author of International styling textbook Basics Fashion Design 08: Styling.

Karen Savage is Senior Lecturer BA Fashion Styling and Production, a designer, stylist, trend forecaster, creative director, blogger and artist with a wealth of experience. Karen came on the scene in the early 1990’s with her own critically-acclaimed fashion label, SAVAGE, garnering extensive media coverage for her controversial slogan t-shirts. Karen has worked with many clients over the years including Absolut Vodka, BBC3, Directory of Social Change, Exposure PR, Hotel Pelirocco, Mobile 3, Nokia, Ogilvy and Mather, Taiwan Textile Federation, The Fawcett Society, The Observer and Traid. She is currently a freelance Creative Director in Print and Licensing for the UK high street and independent market. Karen holds a PG Cert in Teaching and Learning, has been a Visiting Fellow at The Hong Kong Design Institute, and is a recent recipient of the UAL Teaching Award.

Sarah May is Lecturer BA Fashion Styling and Production and fashion set designer, props stylist and artist. Her work focuses on the styled aesthetic and is situated and produced across international multi -platforms. Trained as a Fine Artist specialising in sculpture and installation she has a natural intuition for harmonising elements and for using shape and movement within diverse spatial contexts. Key themes within her practice are based around the physicality of the body, how the body and fashion encounter space and the intimate relationship between materials. Establishing her creative studio in 2007, she has an extensive commercial and editorial client list including British Vogue, Vice, Dazed and Confused, Japanese Vogue, Details, Arena Homme Plus, Camper, Paul Smith, Coca Cola, Selfridges, Nike and American Apparel. She was represented worldwide by Industry Art for eight years and then by The Magnet Agency for two years. Her public speaking, fashion film workshops and charity work clients include The British Council, Its Nice That and Arts Emergency. She has been profiled in numerous magazines and has self published two books. www.sarahmaystudio.com

Philip Scurrah is Lecturer BA Fashion Styling and Production whose fashion styling and photographic portfolio as Fashion Editor and Director at national and international magazine titles range from the pioneering global lifestyle Wallpaper* magazine, Fashion Directorship of Selfridges magazine to Fashion Director of independent Australian style bible Russh. His worldwide industry expertise has been garnered for catwalk shows and season presentations throughout Europe, Australia and India. Philip’s extensive styling experience also developed an innovative and integrated approach to contemporary photographic image making. His former photographic partnership with Alessandra Kila, working as ‘Kila & Rusharc’ received universal media coverage, most recently featured in the group exhibition ‘Altering Space’ at The SouthWest School of Art in North America (2014). The practitioners also received a Honorable Mention at the International Photography Awards (2014). Now working independently Philip continues to creatively direct and produce for a range of International clients.

Thom Murphy is Associate Lecturer BA Fashion Styling and Production Thom Murphy is an established Fashion Stylist, Art Director, Brand Consultant and Casting Director - working predominantly within the realm of contemporary men’s fashion. His editorial work - produced in conjunction with photographers such as David Sims and Alasdair McLellan – has been regularly featured within the pages of international, prestigious style publications including, among others: i-D, Dazed, Arena Homme Plus, Another Man and Self Service. In 2009, Thom set up New Power Studio, a Menswear label. New Power Studio designs arise from a mix of conceptual and pop culture-referencing approaches, and combine sportswear and tailoring, turning it into something new and experimental. This has so far encompassed New Power Studio showing on schedule at London Fashion Week’s MAN day across the past six seasons, and being awarded New Generation. His work had also been featured in two books published by Taschen, Fashion Now and Fashion Now 2; he has shown his work at the V&A Museum in London, as part of their Imperfect Beauty exhibition. From the outset of New Power Studio being launched in February 2009, industry support has been substantial and extremely enthusiastic.

Itai Doron is the Programme Director for Fashion Media courses. He is an established photographer with particular interests in fashion, portraiture, social documentary, body politics, identity and queer theory. Working as a lens-based artist since graduation from Goldsmiths College of Art, Itai has twice received the UAL research project award to develop a body of work on immigration, combining social documentary with notions of fashion. Itai has a proven track record of public dissemination of visual and written work through exhibitions, publications, and academic research and was invited to deliver talks and lectures about his research at various international academic conferences. He has exhibited at the White Cube gallery in London, and participated in numerous group and solo exhibitions in the UK, Europe, Japan, Israel and the United States. He has authored a selection of photography books, including End Of Real in 2005, Yassin in 2009, Chokras’ Mahal (Boys' Palace) in 2011, and Fifteen Minutes With You in 2012.

Visiting Practitioners include:

Guest Speakers include:

  • Jenny Dyson- Creative Consultant
  • Bryonny Lloyd- Creative Director, Antenne Books
  • Patrick Waugh- Head of Brand Creative and Content at TopShop and founder of BOYO Studio
  • Patrick Grey- Head of delivery at Wednesday Creative Agency
  • Louise Naunton- Morgan – Co founder of STSQ Design Agency


How to apply

Opportunities for all

We are committed to making university education an achievable option for a wider range of people and seek to recruit students from diverse socio-economic, cultural and educational backgrounds. We are committed to supporting all our students in achieving their potential both during and after their courses.

Home / EU applicants

This section includes information on how to apply, course entry requirements, selection criteria, information about interviews and portfolio advice.

Applications for 2018/19 entry for this course are now closed. Applications for 2019/20 entry will open in Autumn 2018.

You must apply through Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS), where you’ll need the following information:

  • University code: U65
  • UCAS code: 9L13

Go to ‘Apply’ from the UCAS home page, where you will be able to register and create a password that gives you unique access as you complete your application form.

Contact us on: 

Telephone: +44 (0)20 7514 7344

Or you can use the UAL Course Enquiry Form

Please note that the equal consideration deadline is 15 January.

For full details on the application process, visit the Undergraduate application page.

International applicants

This section includes information on how to apply, course entry requirements, selection criteria, information about interviews and portfolio advice.

Applications for 2018/19 entry for this course are now closed. Applications for 2019/20 entry will open in Autumn 2018.

International applicants may apply through one of three routes only:

Further information on applying via UCAS is provided on the Applying through UCAS page.

If applying through UCAS, you will need the following information:

  • University code: U65
  • UCAS code: 9L13

We continue to accept applications throughout the year, but please note that the equal consideration deadline is 15 January.

For full details on the application process, visit the Undergraduate application page or contact the UAL admissions team who can answer any specific questions that you may have regarding LCF's courses tailored for international students. This can include guidance for your portfolio, advice on the application process and fee advice. We offer a ‘drop-in’ facility for applicants who may be in London and wish to obtain further course and admissions information. 

Entry requirements

Entry to this course is highly competitive: applicants are expected to achieve, or already have, the course entry requirements detailed below.

The standard minimum entry requirements for this course are:

  • A Level Passes at Grade C or Above Preferred subjects include Art, Design, Fashion, Media Studies, and Photography;
  • or Pass Foundation Diploma in Art and Design;
  • or Pass at BTEC Extended Diploma (preferred subjects) Art & Design, Fashion, Media Studies, and Photography;
  • or Pass at UAL Extended Diploma; or Access Diploma or ’64 tariff points from the Access to HE Diploma;
  • or 64 new UCAS tariff points (equivalent to 160 old UCAS tariff points) from a combination of the above qualifications or an equivalent full Level 3 qualification;
  • or equivalent EU or non-EU qualifications;
  • and Three GCSE passes at grade A*-C.

Exceptionally, applicants who do not meet these course entry requirements may still be considered if the course team judges the application demonstrates additional strengths and alternative evidence. This might, for example, be demonstrated by: related academic or work experience; the quality of the personal statement; a strong academic or other professional reference; or a combination of these factors.

This course requires portfolio evidence and applicants will be expected to have a range of visual work showing research and the development of ideas through to a conclusion. 

English language requirements

All classes are conducted in English. If English is not your first language you will be asked to provide evidence of your English language ability when you enrol.

The level required by the University for this course is IELTS 6.0 with a minimum of 5.5 in each skill.

Please visit the UAL Language Requirements page. Read carefully and look at the relevant documents.                          

Student selection criteria

What we look for

The course team seeks to recruit students who can demonstrate:

  • A current interest in and awareness of fashion and fashion styling
  • An enthusiasm for visual communication
  • The potential to develop styling and production skills 

Portfolio and interview advice

For this course you will be required to upload a mini portfolio. Further instructions will be sent by the course administrator after application submission. International students should contact the International Office at lcf.international@arts.ac.uk to find out about the portfolio application process.

For this course your portfolio should show evidence of: technical ability; understanding of balance, proportion and composition; understanding of visual communication principles; exploration and creativity; and technical knowledge.

Applicants will be expected to demonstrate the following at interview: an interest in styling; a cultural awareness of fashion and fashion media; visual awareness evidenced through portfolio work; a motivation for working in the industry; and a motivation to succeed on the course.

What happens next

All application forms, personal statements and references are read and considered by the course team against the selection criteria listed in the Entry requirements and What we look for sections.

Depending on the quality of your application, you may be asked to submit a number of images of your work. If the course team wish to consider your application further, you will be invited to an interview where the course team will look at your portfolio and ask you questions to establish your suitability for the course. If you are successful at the interview stage you will be offered a place. Applicants are not guaranteed to be asked to upload work, nor are they guaranteed an interview.

Please note that if you are unable to attend the College may not be able to re-schedule.

If you applied through UCAS the result of your application will be communicated to you via UCAS through ucastrack. You will only receive further communication directly from the College if your application has been successful. This will be in the form of a full offer pack including details of accommodation, fees, and other important information.

Deferred entry

Deferred entry is normally only allowed in exceptional circumstances. Please contact us before you submit your application if you are considering applying for deferred entry.

Interview week

Applicants on some courses may be invited to attend an Interview. Further details will be sent to you with your interview letter, confirming location and date. International applicants should contact the Admission Office by emailing lcf.international@arts.ac.uk about portfolio requirements (if applicable), interview times and dates.

Potential changes to course structure

Please note: the information outlined is an indicative structure of the course. Whilst we will aim to deliver the course as described on this page, there may be situations where it is desirable or necessary for the University to make changes in course provision, for example because of regulatory requirements or operational efficiencies, before or after enrolment. If this occurs, we will communicate all major changes to all applicants and students who have either applied or enrolled on the course. Please note that due to staff research agreements or availability, not all of the optional modules listed may be available every year. In addition, the provision of course options which depend upon the availability of specialist teaching, or on a placement at another institution, cannot be guaranteed. Please check this element of the course with the course team before making a decision to apply.

Webpage updates

We will update this webpage from time to time with new information as it becomes available. In the meantime, if you have any questions, please use the enquiry form above.

Fees and funding

Home / EU fee


This applies for the 2018/19 academic year.

Tuition fees for undergraduate degree courses have been set at £9,250 per year for full-time study. This applies from the 2017/18 academic year, subject to changes in the law. Tuition fees may increase in future years for new and continuing students, in line with an inflationary amount determined by government. Please visit our Undergraduate tuition fees page for more information.

International fee


This applies for the 2018/19 academic year.

Additional costs

In addition to tuition fees you are very likely to incur additional costs such as travel expenses and the cost of materials. Please read the information on our additional costs page.


Find out about the accommodation options available and how much they will cost.

Scholarships and awards

There are a number of scholarships and awards available to students on this course. Use our search tool to find out more information.

Scholarships search

Careers and alumni

Developing your skills

All of our undergraduate courses are concerned with the development of your personal and professional skills. On your course you will evolve from learning basic skills in your discipline through to a position where you are an independent creative thinker capable of making an effective contribution to the relevant sector of the fashion industry. Personal and Professional Development (PPD) skills are embedded in all units on every course. Speaker programmes with contributions from alumni, members of industry and others are a part of many courses, as are work placement opportunities in industry.

Graduates who wish to continue their education at postgraduate level are encouraged to progress to suitable courses within the College, the University or elsewhere.

Career paths

Many graduates prefer to seek employment as soon as they have completed their undergraduate studies. Recent graduates from the Foundation Degree in Styling and Photography that preceded this course, and who have made their mark on the fashion industry, include Anna Trevelyan, Anders Sølvesten Thompson and Ella Dror. Melodie Roulaud, who graduated in 2012, has had her moving image film published by 125 Magazine online and Lina Synch has gone on to set up her own business Fashion Concierge.